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Interpretation of Satapatha and Kaushitaki Brahmanas regarding the birth of Rudra

Note: Since interpretation of the brahmaNas is a difficult task, I take refuge in srI vedAnta desikan, known as vedAntAchAryA, kavi tArkika simham and sarva tantra svatantarar, whose srI suktIs are sufficient to make even an ignorant person understand the tattvams, who declared that by mere knowledge of the sarIrAtma bhAva, one would never be defeated in debate, thus establishing the greatness of bhagavad rAmAnujAchAryA.

It is well known that Vaishnavas, ie, vedAntins declare that Rudra is a jivAtmA. The pramANas for this come from such sources as the mahOpanishad which states Ishana (Rudra) to be absent during praLaya (eko ha vai nArAyaNa asIt, na Brahma, nEshana), the nArAyaNopanishad which emphasises “nArAyaNAt rudrO jAyatE” and of course, the satapaTha brahmaNa which talks about the birth of Rudra very explicitly and in which Rudra calls himself “anapahatapApma”, ie, not freed from pApa karmas.
The persistent argument of our opponents is this – that the brahmaNas are not to be taken literally, that it is a metaphorical interpretation, that Rudra is a “manifestation” and range from imaginative theories like Prajapati being equated to space and Usha being equated to Time, and Rudra transcending everything – you get the general picture.
While we certainly agree that the brahmaNas have inner meanings, we might point out that the knowledgeable AchAryAs like srI vedAnta desika, who doubtless had realised the essence of vedA and vedAnta, have pointed out that this is nothing more than a description of the birth of Rudra who is a jivAtma still in samsara. While both camps are agreed that these mantras talk about Shiva, the Shaivites argue the following:
  1. “anapahatapApmatvam” is spoken in play by Rudra, in reality it is the “incest” of prajApati and usha that is the sin.
  2. The “anapahatapApmatvam” is only mentioned in the satapatha brahmaNa and not in the kaushitaki brahmaNa which mentions the birth of Rudra. So apparently, we must consider “anapahatapApmatvam” as either metaphorical or as spoken in jest.
  3. The 8 names of Rudra actually purified Prajapati who committed the sin of “incest”.
Before embarking on a detailed analysis and demolition derby of these viewpoints, I will summarize the Vaishnava counter:
It is true that there is a deep inner meaning to all these stories. However, even when vedic usage involves metaphors, words like “anapahatapApma” cannot be interpreted in anyway except in a literal sense. Shaivites say Prajapati is space and Usha is Time, and that the rudra born is God who rules over these. Despite these metaphors, they still ascribe the “anapahatapApmatvam” to Prajapati because he committed incest, ie, they take incest and sin literally. If Prajapati and Usha are metaphors for space and time, then incest and sins must also be metaphors. But then, why is the sin and  incest taken literally here whereas both literal and metaphorical meanings are given to Prajapati and Usha?  This shows that words like “anapahatapApma” cannot be interpreted as metaphors by even Shaivas. They have a literal meaning and in this context, Rudra attributes this “anapahatapApmatva” to himself, not to Prajapati. We shall see this later.
No word in the Veda is ever spoken in jest and cannot be omitted. If “anapahatapApmatvam” occurs in one BrahmaNa and does not occur in the other, there is a reason for it. That will also be mentioned.
The 8 names were indeed given to Rudra to purify him.
Key behind interpreting brahmaNas
The brahmaNas are often descriptions of sacrificial rituals. In other places, there are true incidents interspersed with them. So, there are three ways to interpreting these:
  1. Some incidents really did happen and are taken literally. But they also have a metaphorical meaning which is also valid.
  2. Some incidents are entirely metaphorical.
  3. Some incidents are half–literal (ie, historical) and half-metaphorical in description.
There are 3 incidents involving “prajApati” and “rudra” in the satapaTha brahmaNa. We shall interpret all 3.
Satapatha BrahmaNa  - Incident One – PrajApati’s Incest and Rudra’s punishment
prajāpatirha vai svāṃ duhitaramabhidadhyau | divaṃ oṣasaṃ vā mithunyenayā
syāmiti tāṃ sambabhūva |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:7:4:1-2)
“Pragâpati conceived a passion for his own daughter,--either the Sky or the Dawn. 'May I pair with her!' thus (thinking) he united with her. This, assuredly, was a sin”.
“The gods then said to this god who rules over the beasts (Rudra) 'This one, surely, commits a sin who acts thus towards his own daughter, our sister. Pierce him!' Rudra, taking aim, pierced him. Half of his seed fell to the ground. And thus it came to pass.”
This incident talks of Brahma uniting with his own daughter. This is briefly alluded to in the Bhagavata purAnA as well.
The being that pierced Brahma is called “paShupati” here. The mahAnArAyaNa Upanishad refers to anger as “paShu”. Therefore, the “paShu” referred to here is anger, or more accurately, rajO guNam, which is often described as “anger” in the text.
So, who is paShupati then? The deity that presides over rajO guNam designated as paShu, is paShupati. In other words, it is kAmadEva, the presiding deity of rajO guNam!
If so, why is kAmadEva referred to as Rudra? Because the term Rudra means “One who makes others weep”. The “weeping” is nothing but a metaphor for attachments to sorrows of samsara.When kAmadEva targets anybody, that individual will be overcome by rajO guNa and hence, experience pain and pleasure. Thus, Rudra here refers to kAmadEva as well.
Who are the devas who asked kAmadEva to pierce Brahma? We can either take it as the mind-sons of Brahma, who were disgusted with the act, or metaphorically, “dEva” could refer to the sattva guNams or the indrIyas which experience as well, which would be an enemy of the one who commits sin, ie, pApa karmas, which in this case is Brahma who desired his own daughter.
Why did kAmadEva pierce Brahma AFTER he had shown desire for his daughter? After all, is it not the duty of kAmadEva to induce love rather than piercing his victims after desire rises?  
The answer is that kAmadEva causes anger, and other qualities of rajO guNam after initial lust has risen. The pramAnams justify this fact, as below.
We must understand that kAmadEva” is referred to as “paShupati” and “rudra”, terms which signify anger and attachments which are consequence of lust. PrajApati did indeed commit a sin by desiring his own daughter. Therefore, the devas, who represent sattva guNam, decided to punish him by ensuring that he would be ensnared by his own attachments and succumb to rajO guNam.
In the Gita slOka - 2.62, it is said that anger arises from lust. The mahAnArAyaNopanishad declares “paShu” to be anger. Hence, “paShupati” or kAmadEva, the presiding deity of anger or rajO guNa, strikes with the arrow after lust has arisen.
The arrow of kAmadEva thus, signifies the aftermath of desire, which is frustration, anger and inability to wean oneself away from such attachments. In this respect, remember that the sorrows suffered by srI rAmA happened after he sighted the golden deer. Swami VedAnta dEsikan summarizes it thusly- attachment leads to desire in the same way that srI rAmA was attached to Sita and desired the deer for her. Desire leads to sorrow anger and frustration, which was experienced by srI rAmA when Sita was kidnapped.
(Here AchAryA very beautifully adds that sitA-rAmA are sAkshAt Lakshmi-nArAyaNa, devoid of attachments, so there is no blemish here. This was just play-acting by them to reveal the tattvams of the vedAntA).
The aitrEya brahmaNa also mentions that the gods created this Rudra/PaShupati from the most terrible parts of themselves. This means, the devas who represent the sattva guNa or the experience of the indrIyas took their worst proportions, ie, the tAmasa and rAjasa guNas, to create this presiding deity of rajO guNa.
Lastly, note that the usage of “prajApati” and “ushas” itself supports this interpretation. “prajApati” – One who possesses prajas, ie, the jivA who possesses attachments. “ushas” – root is “ush” which refers to heat, ie, desire or rajO guNa.
Satapatha BrahmaNa – Incident 2- The Birth of Rudra
tadyāni tāni bhūtāni | ṛtavaste 'tha yaḥ sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ so 'tha yā soṣāḥ
patnyauṣasī |(Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
Now, those beings are the seasons; and that lord of beings (prajapati) is the year; and that Ushas, the mistress, is the Dawn.”
sā tānīmāni bhūtāni ca bhūtānāṃ ca patiḥ saṃvatsara uṣasi reto 'siñcantsa
saṃvatsare kumāro 'jāyata so 'rodīt|” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
“And these same creatures, as well as the lord of beings, the year, laid seed into Ushas. There a boy (kumâra) was born in a year, he cried.”
am prajāpatirabravīt | kumāra kiṃ rodiṣi yacramāttapaso 'dhi jāto 'sīti so
'bravīdanapahatapāpmā vā asmyahitanāmā nāma ma dhehīti tasmātputrasya jātasya
nāma kuryātpāpmānamevāsya tadapahantyapi dvitīyamapi tṛtīyamabhipūrvamevāsya
tatpāpmānamapahanti |” (Satapatah Brahmana 6:1:3:9)
“Pragâpati said to him, 'My boy, why criest thou, when thou art born out of labour and trouble?' He said, 'Nay, but I am not freed from (guarded against) evil; I have no name given me: give me a name!' Hence one should give a name to the boy that is born, for thereby one frees him from evil;--even a second, even a third (name), for thereby one frees him from evil time after time”
This incident is very straightforward. SrI nigamAntha mahA desikan interprets it as the birth of pArvati pati only. This is even accepted by shaivas. The only counter arguments our opponent gives is by quoting Incident 1 and saying Rudra was already present.
“anapahatapApma” means “not freed from sins”. This is the best translation.
That argument is demolished. The first incident talked about kAmadEva. This incident talks about what happened afterwards. PrajApati after marrying his daughter was able to get rid of his pApa karmas caused due to incest by his tapas and good conduct. Then, he begot a son. This son clearly refers to himself as “anapahatapApma”, ie, having pApa karmas (evil or sin is a loose translation; “papa” means papa karmas).
Note that prajApati himself tells this boy that the birth was one born of tapas. That means any contamination of incest was wiped out by tapas and appropriate prAyaschitta. This rules out attributing “anapahatapApmatva” to incest.
In any case, it is very clear that the pApa karmas belong to Rudra only since he himself claims that he is not freed from sins. So, there is no scope of transferring anapahatapApmatva to prajApati or anyone else. 
 Note that Rudra's statement reads as "anapahatapApmA vA asmi" and not as "anapahatapApmA vA asi". Only if the latter was the case, it can be said that the sin is PrajApati's and not Rudra's. Moreover, the Satapatha concludes this incident by saying,  
"tasmāt putrasya jātasya nāma kuryāt pāpmānameva asya tadapahanti" 
[Hence, one should *give a name to the boy that is born*, for thereby one *frees him from sin*]. 
In other words, the Satapatha uses the incident where Brahma gives names to Rudra to show that naming a new born son frees the son from sin. If Brahma gave Rudra eight names to free *himself* from sin, this conclusion would not make any sense.
Being a jnAni, Rudra was intelligent from infancy himself and recognising his pitiable state of being born in samsara, cried. He was then given auspicious names which existed even prior to him.
Since Rudra is the presiding deity of the mind, all 8 names have connections with the mind. This etymology is enough to show that the boy here is none other than pArvati pati, the presiding deity of the mind. Of course, these are also bhagavad nAmAs. He has named himself out of devotion for Narasimha who possesses these names. After all, Draupadi was also called Krishna because of her blackish complexion!
There is another argument. Some say that this kumara is indeed born of karma, but is not pArvati pati. He is actually Agni. This is refuted as well. The kumara is called Agni here because Agni means “agra nEtA” – One who leads. Since this kumara is the presiding deity of the mind, he is identified (owing to close association) with the mind that leads the other senses.
These are the 8 forms of agni, ie, 8 descriptions of the mind. Each time the kumara was given a name, he attained control over his mind and by virtue of his punya, control over the elements by pervading them with his intellect. That explains why with each name, some aspect of nature is mentioned.
Now, let us see what the 8 statements of the name giving ceremony mean.
The 8 names of pArvati pati
(Note: This translation adheres to vishishtadvaita vedAnta of yati sArvabhouma and rejects the shallow online translations available for this section).
tamabravīdrudro 'sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodagnistadrūpamabhavadagniva rudro yadarodīttasmādrudraḥ ( Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-10 )
Meaning: You are Rudra, One who weeps because he knew he was not freed from pApa karmAs at the time of his birth. And because he gave him that name, Agni,  ie, the mind that leads  (agra nEta- agni) the indrIyas, became of such a nature (ie, of the form of making us weep in experience of objects of enjoyment), for Rudra (pArvati pati) is (closely associated with) Agni (the mind that leads the indrIyas).
tamabravītsarvo 'sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo
'dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate ( Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-11)

 Meaning: You are Sarva, ie, He whose intellect (dharma bhUta jnAnA) pervades everywhere throughout the body, channelled by the mind or as he knows all.' And because he gave him that name, water or the subtle elements constituting the indrIyas  (Apa) became of such a nature (ie, perceiving all through intellect) for Sarva (pArvati pati with great intellect) is (ie, possesses) the indrIyas constituted by the subtle elements (Apa), in as much as from the indrIyas constituted by subtle elements (Apa) everything, ie, experiences resulting from objects of enjoyment (sarva) here is produced (perceived and enjoyed)."

“Water” in shruti denotes the subtle elements. The tanmAtras in turn correspond to the indrIyas.

támabravītpaśupátirasī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karodóṣadʰayastádrūpámabʰavannóṣadʰayo vaí paśupátistásmādyadā́ paśáva óṣadʰīrlábʰante 'tʰá patīyanti ( Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-12)
Meaning: You are Pasupati, ie, possessor (pati) of anger (paShu) arising from attachments of the mind ,' And because he gave him that name, medicine that is the experience of Brahman (aushadha) became of such a nature (ie, of the form of being medicine for the attachments paShupati), for Pasupati (pArvati pati who is the possessor of anger) is (ie, possesses) medicine of the form of experience of Brahman (aushada). Hence when indrIyas characterised by anger or experience of sense objects (pasava) get medicine (oushada), then they oblige the master (pati). 
támabravīdugrò 'sī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karodvāyustádrūpámbʰavadvāyurvā́ ugrastásmādyadā bálavadvā́yugró vātótyāhuḥ sò 'bravījjyā́yānvā áto 'smi dʰehyèvá me nāméti (( Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-13)
Meaning: “You are Ugra, ie, One who is of lofty intellect. And because he gave him that name, the mind which moves, ie, swayed towards attachments and moves away from knowledge (vAyu) became of such a nature (ie, tameable by the intellect of Ugra) , for Ugra (pArvati pati who has lofty intellect) is (closely associated with) is the mind which moves away from true knowledge and towards attachments (vAyu): hence when it (the mind) blows strongly (ie, lacks concentration), they say 'Ugra (the one of lofty intellect) is blowing (ie, swayed by the mind).' 
támabravīdaśánirasī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karodvidyuttádrūpámabʰavadvidyudvā́ aśánistásmādyáṃ vidyuddʰántyaśánirabadʰīdítyāhuḥ sò 'bravījjyā́yānvā áto 'smi dʰehyèvá me nāméti (Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-14)
Meaning: You are Asani, ie, One whose mind is sharp as a thunderbolt due to meditation (Ashani). And because he gave him that name, the mind which is quick as lightning because of the difficulty in concentrating on one thought (vidyut) became of such a nature (ie, of the form of being sharpened by meditation for pArvati pati) , for Asani (pArvati pati who is of sharpened mind) is (closely associated with) the mind that is quick as lightning (vidyut)  :  Hence they say of him whom the lightning strikes (ie, the target that is Brahman to be attained by the mind which is quick as lightning), 'Asani (One of concentrated mind), has smitten him (ie, the target of the mind that is Brahman) .'
The Upanishads speak of Brahman as the target of the mind that is like a sharpened arrow by meditation. Hence, “lightning strikes” is a metaphor for the mind focusing on Brahman.
támabravīdbʰavò 'sī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karotparjányastádrūpámabʰavatparjányo vaí bʰaváḥ parjányāddʰī̀daṃ sárvam bʰávati sò 'bravījjyā́yānvā áto 'smi dʰehyèvá me nāméti (Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-15)
Meaning: You are Bhava, ie, Producer of the Intellect, ie dharma bhUta jnAnA channelled through the mind.  And because he gave him that name, the mind which is like a rain cloud in drawing intellect like water from the jivA and chanelling it like rain (Parjanya) became of such a nature (ie, a producer or channeller of intellect for pArvati pati); for Bhava (pArvati pati from whom intellect emerges) is (closely associated with) the mind that channels intellect like a raincloud giving rain (Parjanya), since all experience of objects of enjoyment here comes (bhavati) from the mind that channels the intellect like rain from a raincloud (parjanya).

támabravīnmahā́ndevò 'sī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karoccandrámāstádrūpámabʰavatprajā́patirvaí candrámāḥ prajā́patirvaí mahā́ndevaḥ sò 'bravījjyā́yānvā ato 'smi dʰehyèvá me nāméti (Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-16)
Meaning: You are mahAn deva, ie, One who sports, ie, enjoys the objects of enjoyment (dEvA) by his great or manifold intellect (mahAn or mahaT).  .' And because he gave him that name, the mind which is pleasing as it enables experience of Brahman or pleasurable objects (chandramA) became of such a nature (ie, provider of bliss for pArvati pati), for the pleasing mind (chandramA) is the master of sense organs designated as “praja” (prajApati) and  the possessor of objects of enjoyment designated as “prajA” (prajApati) is pArvati pati who has the manifold intellect to enjoy all such objects (mahAn dEva).
támabravīdī́śāno 'sī́ti tadyádasya tannāmā́karodādityastádrūpámabʰavadādityo vā ī́śāna ādityo hyásya sárvasyéṣṭe sò 'bravīdetā́vānvā́ asmi mā métaḥ paro nā́ma dʰā íti (Sathapatha Brahmana VI-1-3-17)
Meaning: “You are IshAna, ie, the controller of the mind. And because he gave him that name, the mind which is luminous like the sun as it channels the luminous attributive knowledge, ie, dharma bhUta jnAnA like the sun-rays (Aditya) became of such nature (ie, controlled by pArvati pati, the controller), for ÎshAna (pArvati pati, the controller of the mind) is (closely associated with) the mind which channels the sun-like intellect (aditya), since the mind which channels the sun like intellect (adityA) rules over this All, ie, enables experience of all that is to be experienced. He said, 'So great indeed I am: give me no other name after that!'
And this clearly shows that pArvati pati, the presiding deity of the mind, was born of karma and cleansed by giving names. The names were linked to the characteristics of the mind. By virtue of his punya karma, his dharma bhUta jnAna (attributive knowledge channelled by the mind) increased each time he was given the name. Since intellect only increases by destruction of pApa karmas, it is clear that these names were given because pArvati pati was not yet cleansed of karma (anapahatapApma).
So this proves, 1) This kumara is pArvati pati, 2) He was not cleansed of pApa karmas, 3) He is not the rudra/paShupati who pierced prajApati in the previous incident, 3) He attained great expansion in dharma bhUta jnAna, ie, intellect by purification of his pApa karmas when the name giving was performed.
The great AcHAryan, srI nigamAntha mahA desikan, has quoted this incident in his isavAsya Upanishad bhAshya and declared that the “Isa” praised there is not pArvati pati, who has a birth, but nArAyaNa, whom the subalOpanishad hails as “Isha sarvabhUtAntarAtma apahatapApma divyO deva eko nArAyaNaH”.
Kaushitaki and Shatapatha BrahmaNa – Incident 3 – The Rudra with a thousand heads and feet
tasminn.enat.samasiñcat | tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt | sahasreṇa.pratihitābhiḥ |
sa.prajāpatim.pitaram.abhyāyacchat | tam.abravīt.kathā.mā.abhyāyacchasi.iti | nāīt | na.vā.idam.avihitena.nāmnā.annam.atsyāmi.iti | (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:02)
“The god (Rudra), with a thousand heads and legs is born at a sacrificial session and out of a golden bowl held by prajapati. Arisen the overpowering figure (Rudra) who grasped the father. Prajapati asked, ‘Why dost you grasp me?’ He replied, ‘Given a name’, saying, ‘For without a name assigned, I shall not eat food here in this world’.”
“śataśīrṣā rudraḥ sahasrākṣaḥ śateṣudhiradhijyadhanvā pratihitāyī bhīṣayamāṇo
'tiṣṭhadannamicamānastasmāddevā abibhayuḥ | te prjāpatimabruvan | asmādvai bibhīmo yadvai no 'yaṃ na hiṃsyāditi so 'bravīdannamasmai sambharata tenainaṃ śamayateti tasmā etadannaṃ samabharañcatarudriyaṃ |” (Satapatha Brahmana 9:1:1:6-7)
"This Rudra with a thousand heads, thousand eyes, and thousand quivers, stood with his bow strung, and his arrows fitted on the string, causing terror, and demanding food. The gods were afraid of him. They said to Prajapati,:'We are afraid of this being, lest he destroy us.' Prajapati said to them: 'Collect for him food, and with it appease him.' They collected for him this food, the satarudriya."  
This has already been interpreted on this website
A similar incident detailing the birth of "rudra" also occurs in shailAli brAhmaNa. Madhvas usually quote this shailAli brAhmaNa incident and the shatarudrIya brAhmaNa (in Satapatha 9:1:1:6-7 shown above) to show the jIva-hood of Rudra. Such a direct interpretation is also favored by a few Srivaishnava Vidwans as well. However, we do not favor a direct interpretation and instead go for a metaphorical one, due to certain reasons that we will see shortly.
“PrajApati” here signifies the jivAtmA in samsArA, which is the possessor (pati) of attachments signified by “praja”. The name “Rudra” means, “One who causes weeping”. Therefore, the Rudra here is not pArvati pati, but the mind which causes crying or attachments to objects of the senses (signified by crying). Since the mind channels the vast intellect that experiences the objects of enjoyment, it is described as possessing a thousand heads and feet. We should note that rAvaNa was “dasamukha” because he had double the senses and was a slave to them.
Alternatively, the Rudra collectively refers to mind and all sense organs, represented by a thousand quivers.
The golden vessel refers to rajO guNa. The vessel represents the guNa and the golden color signifies the objects of enjoyment that causes rajO guNa. Since these objects appear very desirable, the color is said to be golden. SrI vedAnta desika explains this as follows in his isavAsyOpanishad bhAshya:
hiranmayena pAtrEna satyasyApihitam mukham
tat tvam pUshan apAvrNu satya-dharmAya drStaye (~Isavasya Upanishad)
Meaning: The face, ie, mind of jivAtmA (Satya) is covered by the golden vessel (ie, rajas). O Pushan (nArAyaNa designated as pushan), do remove that (cover of the mind) for the sake of perceiving Brahman, which is the function (dharma) of the jivAtmA (satya).
Pushan signifies nArAyaNa who is sarva shabda vAchyan. These words, being common nouns, either directly denote nArAyaNa, or denote him via the fact that these deities are his body and he is sarvAntarAtma.
satyadharmaya - As per the shAstra vAkyams such as "satyam chAnrutham cha satyambhavath" and "satyasya satyam", the term 'satya' here denotes the jivAtmA. 'Dharma' denotes the dharma bhUta jnAnA of the jivAtmA, which when expanded sufficiently, can perceive Brahman, ie, brahmAnubhavadarshanAya.
Satyasya mukham - The mind of jivA, denoted as 'mukham' is covered by the golden vessel. Meaning, the intellect of the jivA, ie, its dharma bhUta jnAnA used to experience paramAtmA is blocked by rajas. This rajas is described as a golden vessel since 'golden' signifies 'rAga', ie, attachment towards objects of enjoyment, which is the cause of rajas. Not to be confused with the fact that rajo guna is also denoted by red color during creation.
In that sense, 'hiranmaya' describes the objects of enjoyment depending on karma. So, Bhagavan is resorted to in this mantra to destroy the obstacles to samAdhi via bhakti yoga, which has karma and jnAna yogas as ancillories.
Why are the indrIyas, ie, Rudra, angry? It means that the indrIyas are being swayed towards objects of enjoyment by the rajO guNa (golden vessel) of the jivA (prajApati). Hence, they want food. What is food demanded by the indrIyAs? It is nothing but engaging the indrIyas in bhagavad vishaya, which is diversion from attachments. Who are the devas who offered the indrIyas this food? The sAttvic tendencies. What is this food? The “satarudrIyam”, which is a praise of Lakshmi Narasimha, that consists of 11 anuvAkAs (one for each indrIya), which appeases the indrIyas by weaning them away from attachment by making them sing his praises.
That is exactly what is also seen in the satapatha brahmaNa:
athātaḥ śatarudriyaṃ juhoti | atraiṣa sarvo 'gniḥ saṃskṛtaḥ sa eṣo 'tra rudro devatā tasmindevā etadamṛtaṃ rūpamuttamamadadhuḥ sa eṣo 'tra dīpyamāno 'tiṣṭhadannamicamānastasmāddevā abibhayuryadvai no 'yaṃ na hiṃsyāditi "
Meaning: "Now offer an oblation with the 'Satarudriya'. Here this universal fire has been prepared; and here this Rudra (the mind) is the devatA ie, the mind that sports or experiences (dEva). In him the gods (the indriyAs) placed this most excellent nectarine form, ie, the objects of enjoyment that are like nectar to the jivA (amRtarUpamadhuH). Here he rose up flaming (ie, the mind full of passion or rajO guNa), desiring food (occupation of the mind to wean away from attachments). The gods (indrIyas or sattva guNa) were afraid of him, 'lest' (they thought) 'he should destroy us'." (ie, the mind may cause the indrIyas to indulge in material matters and thus result in ignorance, which is akin to destruction of the jivA’s knowledge.
After this statement, the same 8 names are given in the kaushitaki brahmaNa. But there is a difference between this and the satapatha brahmaNa.
Because of the mention of “anapahatapApmatva” and the birth of a kumara in the Satapatha BrahmaNa, that incident talks about the birth of the presiding deity of the mind, ie pArvati pati. So. This incident has a literal interpretation of the birth of pArvati pati and metaphorical interpretation of the mind.
In the Kaushitaki BrahmaNa, the incident is not literal in any sense whatever. The Rudra of a thousand quivers, etc is only the mind and/or the indrIyas, with prajApati being the jivA. That is made clear by the mention of the golden vessel as well, signifying rajasa guNa. So, this incident is wholly metaphorical and only refers to the insentient mind (personified for the sake of metaphor) and not to the presiding deity. That is why anapahatapApmatvam is absent since sins cannot be attributed to the insentient mind.
If so, why are the same 8 names given in both kaushitaki and satapatha brahmaNas? It is because these names apply to both the insentient mind as well as pArvati pati Rudra, the presiding deity of the mind. So, in the kaushitaki brahmaNa, the names are given only to the mind, whereas in the satapatha brahmaNa, the names are given to pArvati pati in connection with the mind.
Further clarification on interpreting “Rudra” as the mind in Shatarudriya Brahmana
Consider this section of the Brahmana which describes the offering of Satarudriyam to Rudra:
If we take "sahasrAkshassahasrapAt" as rudra devata, then we have to admit that he is the devata for the Rudram despite his anapahatapApmatvam, which is impossible. Now, if we take it as the mind, it can be easily explained.
Here, we call the reader’s attention to these mantras:
[He offers, with, Vâg. S. XVI, 1], 'Reverence, O Rudra, be to thy wrath!' he thereby does reverence to that wrath which remained extended within him;--'And to thine arrow be reverence, and to both thine arms be reverence!' for it was by his arrow and his arms that he was inspiring fear.
This is the first mantra, first anuvaka. The sacrifice is done to appease the mind by praising bhagavan. Our acharyas say, by meditating on the fact that he was tied by yashoda, the knots that tie us to samsara would be untied. By meditating on him being born, we would no longer be born. (ref. janma karma ca me divyam vyAkhyAna)
This seems to follow a similar pattern. By praising his anger, our anger (ie, passion or rajO guNa) vanishes. By praising the arrows and arms which inspired fear in samudra rAja, our fear (due to attachments of mind) is gone. And so on. This interpretation is possible only if we take this as the mind and not pArvati pati.
Now, note another mantra that occurs.
Now some of these (formulas) have 'reverence' on both sides, and others on one side only;--more terrible and more unappeased, indeed, are those (Rudras) that have 'reverence' on both sides: on both sides he thereby appeases them by sacrifice, by reverence.
This has been quoted by Bhatta Bhaskara as proof that the Rudram refers to Shiva and the sanskrit text is as follows,
"te haite ghoratarA rudrA ubhayato- namaskArAH | athaite shAntatarA ye.anyataratonamaskArAH"
The vaishnava interpretation is this - "ghoratarA" does not mean "terrible". It means "sublime" or "venerable", ie, indicative of paratva. "shAntatarA" is interpreted in terms of "SantiH" nama in sahasranAma - He who is always calm despite the trespasses of the jivAs and hence, this is indicative of sousIlyam, ie, taking avataras and enduring asuras like sisupala, etc.
So, the namas in rudram which have double namaskArams allude to his greatness, whereas the single nAmas allude to his simplicity. The double namaskArams occur in the 2nd anuvaka, for instance because they stress on rakshagatva of bhagavAn. Protection is a display of supremacy, as only the supreme can protect.
Now, another question arises. Why are the names given to an insentient mind? In the case of pArvati pati, names were given to purify him of karma (and also to emphasise his presidency over the mind). But here, the mind is an insentient object, so why give names to it?
That is because the names are given only as a metaphor of the jivAtma recognising the nature of the mind. Since the whole incident is a metaphor, the jivA attached to objects of enjoyment (prajApati) under rajO guNa (golden vessel) recognises the wayward mind/indriyas (rudra of a thousand quivers) and such recognition is expressed by the names Rudra, Bhava, Asani, IshAna, etc. Each time the mind, personified, asks for a name, meaning, that the name giving stops only when the jivA recognises all the characteristics of the mind in its entirety.
The same etymological meanings hold for the names in both brahmaNas. The difference is that in Satapatha BrahmaNa, it was pAravti pati, the presiding deity of the mind, who is “anapahatapApma” and hence was named. Whereas here, it is the insentient mind whose characteristics are recognised by the names.
Let us now look at each of the 8 names given to the mind in the kaushitaki brahmaNa.
The 8 names of the mind
In the previous section, we saw the names of pArvati pati. This brahmaNa is actually an explanation of the tattvam behind the name giving of pArvati pati. Because, the names given to pArvati pati are all representative of characteristics of the mind.
So, the mind can also be called Bhava, Sarva, etc. Here, it is a metaphorical description of how the jivAtma recognises the characteristics of the mind to enable the former to concentrate the mind in meditation on Brahman.
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.bhava.eva.iti / yad.bhava.āpas.tena / (KB 6.2.2-3)
Meaning: You are Bhava, , ie, the mind which produces or channels the intellect (dharma bhUta jnAnA) for the mind (Bhava) pervades, ie, the intellect channelled by the mind pervades (apa) everywhere.'
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīt.śarva.eva.iti /yat.śarvo.agnis.tena / (KB 6.2.13-14)
Meaning: You are Sarva, ie, the mind that experiences all the objects of enjoyment (through the indrIyas), for the mind (Sarva) is the leader (agni) of the sense organs.
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīt.paśu.patir.eva.iti  yat.paśu.patir.vāyus.tena ( Kaushitaki Brahmana 6-2-25 )
Meaning: You are Pasupati, ie, the mind that possesses (pati) anger (paShu) arising from attachments of the mind ,' for the mind (pasupati) is that which moves (Vayu), ie, swayed towards attachments and moves away from knowledge.
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.ugra.eva.deva.iti yad.ugro.deva.oṣadhayo.vanaspatayas.tena (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6-2-37)
Meaning: You are Ugradeva, ie, the mind which sports, ie, enjoys the kalyAna guNams of Brahman (dEva) by virtue of lofty intellect (ugra) . For the mind (ugradEva) possesses (pati) desire (vana) for Brahman, designated as medicine (oushada) by virtue of its lofty intellect.
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīn.mahān.eva.deva.iti / yan.mahān.deva.ādityas.tena / (KB 6.3.5-6)
Meaning:You are MahAdEva, ie, the mind which sports (dEvA), ie, allows enjoyment when the jivA assumes several bodies by virtue of great or manifold intellect (mahAn or mahaT). For the mind (mahAdEva) is luminous like the sun (Aditya) as its knowledge pervades like the rays of the sun.
: sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.rudra.eva.iti /  yad.rudraś.candramās.tena / (KB 6.13.8)
Meaning: You are Rudra, ie, the mind that makes us weep in enjoyment of bhagavad kalyAna guNams upon experience. For the mind (Rudra) is of an agreeable nature (chandramAs).
sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.īśāna.eva.iti /  yad.īśāno.annam.tena /
Meaning: You are IsAna, ie, the mind that is the controller of the senses. For the mind (IsAna) is (ie, enjoyer of) food, ie, Brahman designated as “annam”.  
: sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.aśanir.eva.iti / yad.aśanir.indras.tena / (KB 6.3.41-42)
Meaning: You are Ashani, ie, the mind that is sharp like a thunderbolt. For such a mind (Ashani) is excellent or foremost (Indra) as it is sharpened with meditation on Brahman.
As one can see, the names progressively describe the untameable mind being weaned away from attachments and finally engaging in meditation on Brahman. Hence, this whole episode is a metaphorical description of upAsaNa and does not refer to pArvati pati at all.
In contrast, the satapatha brahmaNa is a literal incident with inner meanings as well due to the presence of terms like “kumara” and “anapahatapApma” and is the birth of pArvati pati.
A summary of the tattvams elaborated here is also given in the satapatha brahmaNa as follows:
From Prajapati, when he had become enfeebled, the deities departed. Only one god, Manyu, did not leave him, but continued extended within him. He (Prajapati) wept. The tears which fell from him remained in that 'Manyu'. He became Rudra with a hundred heads, a hundred eyes, and a hundred quivers. Then the other drops which fell from him in unnumbered thousands entered into these worlds.They were called Rudras because they sprang from him when he had wept. This Rudra with a thousand heads, eyes, and quivers, stood with his bow strung,and arrows on the string, causing terror, and demanding food. The gods were afraid of him. They said to Prajapati,:'We are afraid of this being, lest he destroy us.' Prajapati said to them: 'Collect for him food, and with it appease him.' They collected for him this food, the satarudriya (~Satapatha BrahmaNa,
Note that it says PrajApati became enfeebled. What it means is that even when the jivA grows old and all deities (ie, vital organs, strength, etc) depart, only one remains – Manyu. Which means, what remains is anger, or attachment, which is ever present with the jivA even when he is about to die. This is exactly what srI Adi Shankara mentions in Bhaja Govindam – that youth departs, but attachments still remain!
The weeping refers to the frustration or anger due to lack of fulfilment of the attachments which cause the waywardness of the indrIyas. The other meanings remain the same.
Thus ,thesatapatha brahmaNa describes the birth of the presiding deity of the mind, ie, pArvati pati. The kaushitaki brahmaNa is a metaphorical description of the mind itself.
This article, by the grace of srI yati sArvabhoumA, srI rAmAnuja muni, explains very adequately how the brahmaNas describe pArvati pati as a jivAtmA and do not attribute any form of supremacy to him.